As billions of dollars continue to flow to investor-owned utilities, cooperatives, municipalities and internet service providers as part of federal and state broadband initiatives, gathering data on existing fiber or other types of communications networks will be crucial. Capturing this data in a geographic information system (GIS) database will give incumbent service providers a boost in developing comprehensive plans.
Many providers have drawings, splice diagrams and other network data but lack a centralized environment to consolidate and host all of this data. A GIS solution is an excellent starting point to map out the network overlaid with an accurate listing of components and assets already in place. This step will enable a plan for deploying entirely new assets or, in some cases, identifying where the existing network is fully extended.
The planning process for many providers will center around the densification of the service areas. These densifications will drive decisions on which technology makes the most sense to deploy — wireless or fiber — while also determining the ultimate cost of the last mile.
For providers in the preliminary estimating phase, parameters can be set around features that are of most interest. Options may include looking at either microwave or fiber backhauls. All-dielectric, all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) or lashed fiber-optic installations may be best suited for deployment on distribution system poles or underground systems, or an optical ground wire (OPGW) deployment might be the better alternative along transmission structures. Either option can be showcased within a GIS database to easily allow providers to compare the differences in cost.
The geospatial views can also enable easy decision trees for other system investments, such as whether a fiber build-out might allow nearby substations, central offices, or other vital facilities to be upgraded with new communications systems. GIS tools can increase the value proposition of deploying to a range of solutions.
Tools to Help With Difficult Decisions
Even with the help of outside funding, some providers will still face cost justification decisions on how far to extend fiber or wireless networks.
The goal of most grant programs is to come up with solutions that will serve the maximum number of areas possible within the available funding. In some cases, for example, fiber or wireless devices might only bring service to two or three households along a 10-mile stretch. While this investment may not be cost justified if viewed on its own, it may become feasible when combined with a route or area that will bring service to more densely populated zones located a few miles further.
GIS functionality will be invaluable in visualizing those win-win scenarios. The different types of fiber architectures and microwave paths can be evaluated side-by-side with robust planning tools that account for the age and condition of physical assets that may be needed for deployments, including antennas or other devices.
With fiber deployment, most of the expense will be bucketed in the cost of installation, not in materials and equipment. For projects where much of the build involves attaching fiber optic cables on poles, there may be options to upgrade aging physical assets in conjunction with those deployments. Many distribution assets have seen an ever-growing percentage of their poles needing to be replaced. The prospect of a fiber network build-out could help ease or justify that expense.
A holistic view of the capital investment needs could result in other decisions as well. For example, it may make sense to build a portion of the network underground, aerially, or perhaps even a microwave path. The highly complex range of decisions will ultimately result in most networks being built in a variety of ways — not 100% one or another.
Most providers are likely to be weighing a number of factors in order to determine the option that makes the most sense for the path being analyzed. Utilizing GIS tools will help providers make more accurate and informed decisions.
The economic analysis enabled by robust geospatial tools will be essential in determining the most cost-effective routes, technologies and methods of installation. This rapidly advancing functionality will be a vital component in developing the correct broadband solution for any underserved area. Front-end planning will undoubtedly drive success for providers that have been awarded or are pursuing funds through grants.
The process of building out networks can be enhanced by using geospatial tools that enable providers to integrate large volumes of data into a single, easy-to-use database.
Editor’s note: This post was originally published Jan. 25, 2021, and has been updated for context and accuracy.